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Completed 2019-05-09
Description
The Citigroup Center located in Manhattan, New York City, located at 53rd Street between Lexington Avenue and Third Avenue. It was built in 1977, it is 279 m tall, and has 59 floors.
Geometry
  • Input parameters
    Wind Load
    X: 0
    Y: 0
    Z: 0
    Meter
    15 m/s
    NE
    45 °
    Prototype
    10
  • Solver parameters
PlotForce in x-direction​
The plot in this section shows the total aerodynamic forces (N) acting in x-direction of the coordinate system on the specified buildings over time (s). Without building of interest, the force on the entire uploaded model is calculated. The time period corresponds to the time for the wind to pass over the building complex from one end to the other.
Drag
PlotForce in y-direction
The plot in this section shows the total aerodynamic forces (N) acting in y-direction of the coordinate system on the specified buildings over time (s). Without building of interest, the force on the entire uploaded model is calculated. The time period corresponds to the time for the wind to pass over the building complex from one end to the other.
Side force
PlotForce in z-direction​
The plot in this section shows the total aerodynamic forces (N) acting in z-direction of the coordinate system on the specified buildings over time (s). Without building of interest, the force on the entire uploaded model is calculated. The time period corresponds to the time for the wind to pass over the building complex from one end to the other.
Lift
PlotSurface load
This plot shows surface load on the object at different heights. The surface of the object of interest is divided into 20 cross sections with equal height and the surface load is calcuated for each of these cross sections. The data can be downloaded from the section ”Raw Files”.
Surface load
  • Simulation log
    New
    2019-05-09 09:09
    Ready for simulation
    2019-05-09 09:11
    Pre processing
    2019-05-09 09:13
    Simulating
    2019-05-09 09:19
    Post processing
    2019-05-09 09:41
    Completed
    2019-05-09 09:55
Time Lapse
This section shows the wind load (pressure) on the buildings with the help of a time lapse movie. A time lapse movie shows the wind load in different locations, changing over time.

The colors indicate if the pressure is reduced or increased relative to the pressure given at the outflow. Blue colors indicate that the pressure is reduced. Red colors indicate that the pressure is increased.
Side View (Y)360°15 m/s
This section shows the wind load (pressure) on the buildings with the help of a time lapse movie. A time lapse movie shows the wind load in different locations, changing over time.

The colors indicate if the pressure is reduced or increased relative to the pressure given at the outflow. Blue colors indicate that the pressure is reduced. Red colors indicate that the pressure is increased.
Average
This section shows the wind load (pressure). Each image is based on the average wind load, and is visualized for a full rotation, divided in steps of 10 degrees.

The colors indicate if the pressure is reduced or increased relative to the pressure given at the outflow. Blue colors indicate that the pressure is reduced. Red colors indicate that the pressure is increased.
Side View (Y)360°15 m/s
This section shows the wind load (pressure). Each image is based on the average wind load, and is visualized for a full rotation, divided in steps of 10 degrees.

The colors indicate if the pressure is reduced or increased relative to the pressure given at the outflow. Blue colors indicate that the pressure is reduced. Red colors indicate that the pressure is increased.
Time Lapse
This section shows the wind flow (velocity) around the buildings with the help of a time lapse movie. A time lapse movie shows the wind flow in different locations, changing over time. For the side view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction and is focused on the building of interest.

Apart from wind effects, it is also possible to see a pressure field around 0. This pressure field is used to detect flow separation. Flow separation can often result in increased drag, particularly pressure drag.
Side View (Y)15 m/s
This section shows the wind flow (velocity) around the buildings with the help of a time lapse movie. A time lapse movie shows the wind flow in different locations, changing over time. For the side view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction and is focused on the building of interest.

Apart from wind effects, it is also possible to see a pressure field around 0. This pressure field is used to detect flow separation. Flow separation can often result in increased drag, particularly pressure drag.
Time Lapse
This section shows the wind flow (velocity) around the buildings with the help of a time lapse movie. A time lapse movie shows the wind flow in different locations, changing over time. For the top view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the bottom and is focused on the whole model.

You can use this view to find different wind effects, and see how they vary over time. Wind effect can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
Top View (Z)15 m/s
This section shows the wind flow (velocity) around the buildings with the help of a time lapse movie. A time lapse movie shows the wind flow in different locations, changing over time. For the top view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the bottom and is focused on the whole model.

You can use this view to find different wind effects, and see how they vary over time. Wind effect can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
  • Understanding wind effects
    Corner effect
    Also known as corner streams or corner jets. The wind speeds up near the corners of buildings. Pedestrian discomfort is mainly due to transition and turbulence.
    Passage effect
    Passage effect can be seen in any passage through a building or small gap between two buildings. Pedestrian discomfort is mainly due to high winds.
    Venturi effect
    Speed up between two buildings or rows of buildings. Pedestrian discomfort is mainly due to high winds.
    Wash down effect
    When hitting a wall, the wind can be redirected downwards and create undesirable effects on pedestrian level. This "vortex" can be observed in front of the high rise building. Behind the building (cavity), small "eddies" can be seen, where the air is mixed by the swirling motion of the wind. Outside of the cavity zone, the air flows in the wind direction
Average
This section shows the wind flow (velocity). Each image is based on the average wind speed, and is visualized in slices. For the side view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction and is focused on the building of interest.

You can use this view to find different wind effects. Wind effect can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
Side View (Y)15 m/s
This section shows the wind flow (velocity). Each image is based on the average wind speed, and is visualized in slices. For the side view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction and is focused on the building of interest.

You can use this view to find different wind effects. Wind effect can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
Average
This section shows the wind flow (velocity). Each image is based on the average wind speed, and is visualized in slices. For the top view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the bottom and focused on the whole model.

You can use this view to find different wind effects. Wind effect can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
Top View (Z)15 m/s
This section shows the wind flow (velocity). Each image is based on the average wind speed, and is visualized in slices. For the top view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the bottom and focused on the whole model.

You can use this view to find different wind effects. Wind effect can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
  • How to interpret the color scale
    Colors
    Blue colors indicate that the wind speed is reduced, and red colors indicate that the wind speed is increased. The resulting wind speeds are compared to the input wind speed given in the set up.

    The flow is illustrated using two main colors, that are mapped to negative and positive values. Two main colors is typically used when a single channel of data is available (for example velocity, pressure or temperature). The color mapping is linear and relative to this specific simulation.
AverageArrows
This section shows the wind flow (velocity). Each image is based on the average wind speed, and is visualized in slices. Each visualization is also overlapped with arrows, that indicate the wind direction and its dynamics. For the side view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction and is focused on the building of interest.

You can use this view to find different wind effects. Wind effect can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
Side View (Y)15 m/s
This section shows the wind flow (velocity). Each image is based on the average wind speed, and is visualized in slices. Each visualization is also overlapped with arrows, that indicate the wind direction and its dynamics. For the side view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction and is focused on the building of interest.

You can use this view to find different wind effects. Wind effect can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
AverageArrows
This section shows the wind flow (velocity). Each image is based on the average wind speed, and is visualized in slices. Each visualization is also overlapped with arrows, that indicate the wind direction and its dynamics. For the top view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the bottom and focused on the whole model.

You can use this view to find different wind effects. Wind effect can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
Top View (Z)15 m/s
This section shows the wind flow (velocity). Each image is based on the average wind speed, and is visualized in slices. Each visualization is also overlapped with arrows, that indicate the wind direction and its dynamics. For the top view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the bottom and focused on the whole model.

You can use this view to find different wind effects. Wind effect can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
  • Learn more about the science behind our simulations
    Finite Element Method
    The foundation of Ingrid Cloud is our CFD-framework, which uses the Finite Element Method (FEM) together with adaptive mesh refinement based on adjoint techniques and a posteriori error estimation. Since 2010, our technology has been regularly validated in benchmark workshops organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and by NASA. The team behind Adaptive Simulations has dedicated over 30 person-years of research, to solve and automate many typical problems regarding CFD.

    Read more...
AverageStreamlines
The images in this section shows velocity streamlines in different slices from the side. Streamlines indicate directions, followed by a wind particle of the flow. For the side view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction and is focused on the building of interest.
Side View (Y)15 m/s
The images in this section shows velocity streamlines in different slices from the side. Streamlines indicate directions, followed by a wind particle of the flow. For the side view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction and is focused on the building of interest.
Computational Mesh
The images in this section show the tetrahedral mesh in cross sections perpendicular to the axis. Each vertex in the mesh can be thought of as a sampling point, where the flow is evaluated. Our adaptive mesh refinement method is capable of identifying regions of the flow requiring higher resolution, depending on the quantity of interest specified in the creation of the simulation, and the residual (the sum of all local errors). Tetrahedra in these regions are subdivided into smaller tetrahedra, increasing the resolution and decreasing the local error. This subdivision continues until the error is sufficiently small throughout the entire domain.

This figure shows the sequence of adaptive mesh refinements from the side (Y).
Side View (Y)
The images in this section show the tetrahedral mesh in cross sections perpendicular to the axis. Each vertex in the mesh can be thought of as a sampling point, where the flow is evaluated. Our adaptive mesh refinement method is capable of identifying regions of the flow requiring higher resolution, depending on the quantity of interest specified in the creation of the simulation, and the residual (the sum of all local errors). Tetrahedra in these regions are subdivided into smaller tetrahedra, increasing the resolution and decreasing the local error. This subdivision continues until the error is sufficiently small throughout the entire domain.

This figure shows the sequence of adaptive mesh refinements from the side (Y).
Computational Mesh
The images in this section show the tetrahedral mesh in cross sections perpendicular to the axis. Each vertex in the mesh can be thought of as a sampling point, where the flow is evaluated. Our adaptive mesh refinement method is capable of identifying regions of the flow requiring higher resolution, depending on the quantity of interest specified in the creation of the simulation, and the residual (the sum of all local errors). Tetrahedra in these regions are subdivided into smaller tetrahedra, increasing the resolution and decreasing the local error. This subdivision continues until the error is sufficiently small throughout the entire domain.

This figure shows the sequence of adaptive mesh refinements from the top (Z).
Top View (Z)
The images in this section show the tetrahedral mesh in cross sections perpendicular to the axis. Each vertex in the mesh can be thought of as a sampling point, where the flow is evaluated. Our adaptive mesh refinement method is capable of identifying regions of the flow requiring higher resolution, depending on the quantity of interest specified in the creation of the simulation, and the residual (the sum of all local errors). Tetrahedra in these regions are subdivided into smaller tetrahedra, increasing the resolution and decreasing the local error. This subdivision continues until the error is sufficiently small throughout the entire domain.

This figure shows the sequence of adaptive mesh refinements from the top (Z).
Raw dataAverage
Download instantaneous raw data (VTU) for the simulation. You can use open source software like ParaView to open and customize the visualization. The velocity and pressure fields are normalized. Please contact our support if you have any questions (support@ingridcloud.com).​
Raw dataBuilding
Download building data (CSV) for the simulation. These are comma-separated values files containing surface load as a function of height, as well as force and moment in x, y, z-directions as a function of time. If you have specified a building of interest, the quantities are computed for that building; otherwise, they are computed for the entire model.

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