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Completed 2019-05-09
Description
Bridgewater Place in Leeds have been plagued by high winds since the skyscraper was built in 2007.
Geometry
Location
  • Wind data
    When simulating wind comfort and wind effects for a chosen location, Ingrid Cloud uses historical weather data provided by meteoblue.com. The weather data is from the 3 years preceding the current year. Wind speed and direction are considered on an hourly basis for each day of the year.

    The following diagrams illustrates the typical wind distribution at the selected location 53.791633605957, -1.54772961139679:
    Quarter 1
    Quarter 2
    Quarter 3
    Quarter 4
  • Input parameters
    Wind Comfort
    Meter
    2 m
    X: 0
    Design
    Y: 0
    8
  • Solver parameters
  • Simulation log
    New
    2019-05-09 09:09
    Ready for simulation
    2019-05-09 09:11
    Pre processing
    2019-05-09 09:13
    Simulating
    2019-05-09 09:19
    Post processing
    2019-05-09 09:41
    Completed
    2019-05-09 09:55
  • Understanding wind comfort
    Wind comfort visualizations
    • A wind comfort image indicates the recommended outdoor comfort for different activities. When looking at a height around 2 meters, we call this pedestrian comfort.
    • Since the wind often varies over the year, the report results are divided into four quarters (indicated in the description by Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4)
    • We base our results on two different criterias used to measure urban microclimate all around the world: Lawson and the Davenport.
    Lawson criteria
    A Lawson image will show what type of activity (sitting, walking, etc) is comfortable to exercise at a particular place. Comfort classifications assume that wind velocity exceed the average wind speeds less than 5% of the time considered. In this case, the time considered is a quarter of year, or 3 months. Safety classifications (> 15m/s) are activated when wind velocities exceed the average wind speeds less than 0.022% of the time.


    Davenport criteria
    A davenport image will show a specific type of activity, and how comfortable that activity is at a certain location. The color scheme shows you the percentage of time the average wind exceeds 5m/s. The longer time the average wind speed exceeds 5m/s, the more uncomfortable the activity is assumed to be.


    References
    Lawson, T.V. and Penwarden, A.D. (1975). The Effects of Wind on People in the Vicinity of Buildings, In: Proceedings 4th International Conference on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Cambridge University Press, Heathrow, pp. 605–622. Isyumov N, Davenport AG. 1975. The ground level wind environment in built-up areas. In: Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures. Heathrow, UK, Cambridge University Press, 403-422
Lawson based criteria
Sitting
0.0 - 2.5 m/s 5% Sitting Acceptable for frequent outdoor sittings use. For example at a restaurant or cafe.
Occasional sitting
2.5 - 4.0 m/s 5% Occasional sitting Acceptable for occasional outdoor seating. For example general outdoot spaces.
Standing
4.0 - 6.0 m/s 5% Standing Acceptable for example entrances, bus stops or covered walkways.
Strolling
6.0 - 8.0 m/s 5% Strolling Acceptable for slow paced walking with occasional stops.
Jogging
8.0 - 10 m/s 5% Jogging Acceptable for jogging, cycling and other lighter exercises.
Uncomfortable
> 10 m/s 5% Uncomfortable Not comfortable for regular pedestrian access.
Dangerous
> 15 m/s 0.022% Dangerous Can be considered dangerous.
Lawson
A Lawson image will show what type of activity that is comfortable to exercise at a particular place. Comfort classifications assume that wind speeds exceed the average wind speeds less than 5% of the time. Safety classifications (> 15m/s) are activated when wind speeds exceed the average wind speeds less than 0.022% of the time.
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Davenport based criteriaa
A Activity       Preferable       Acceptable       Uncomfortable       Dangerous
Sitting Sitting 0.0 - 0.1 % 0.1 - 3.0 % 3.0 - 53 % > 53 %
Davenport
A Davenport image will show a specific type of activity, and how comfortable that activity is at a certain location. The color scheme shows you the percentage of time the average wind exceeds 5m/s. The longer time the average wind speed exceeds 5m/s, the more uncomfortable the activity is assumed to be.
Davenport based criteriab
B Activity       Preferable       Acceptable       Uncomfortable       Dangerous
Sitting Occasional sitting 0.0 - 6.0 % 6.0 - 15 % 15 - 53 % > 53 %
Davenport
A Davenport image will show a specific type of activity, and how comfortable that activity is at a certain location. The color scheme shows you the percentage of time the average wind exceeds 5m/s. The longer time the average wind speed exceeds 5m/s, the more uncomfortable the activity is assumed to be.
Davenport based criteriac
C Activity       Preferable       Acceptable       Uncomfortable       Dangerous
Sitting Strolling 0.0 - 23 % 23 - 34 % 34 - 53 % > 53 %
Davenport
A Davenport image will show a specific type of activity, and how comfortable that activity is at a certain location. The color scheme shows you the percentage of time the average wind exceeds 5m/s. The longer time the average wind speed exceeds 5m/s, the more uncomfortable the activity is assumed to be.
Davenport based criteriad
D Activity       Preferable       Acceptable       Uncomfortable       Dangerous
Sitting Jogging or Cycling 0.0 - 43 % 43 - 50 % 50 - 53 % > 53 %
Davenport
A Davenport image will show a specific type of activity, and how comfortable that activity is at a certain location. The color scheme shows you the percentage of time the average wind exceeds 5m/s. The longer time the average wind speed exceeds 5m/s, the more uncomfortable the activity is assumed to be.
  • Understanding wind effects
    Corner effect
    Also known as corner streams or corner jets. The wind speeds up near the corners of buildings. Pedestrian discomfort is mainly due to transition and turbulence.
    Passage effect
    Passage effect can be seen in any passage through a building or small gap between two buildings. Pedestrian discomfort is mainly due to high winds.
    Venturi effect
    Speed up between two buildings or rows of buildings. Pedestrian discomfort is mainly due to high winds.
Wind effectsTime Lapse
This section shows the wind flow around the buildings with the help of a time lapse movie. A time lapse movie shows the wind flow in different locations, changing over time. The camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the ground.

You can use this view to find different wind effects, and see how they vary over time. Wind effect can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
Top View (Z)8 wind directions
This section shows the wind flow around the buildings with the help of a time lapse movie. A time lapse movie shows the wind flow in different locations, changing over time. The camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the ground.

You can use this view to find different wind effects, and see how they vary over time. Wind effect can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
Wind effectsAverage with arrows
You can use these images to find different wind effects. These images show the wind flow in different locations, as an average. Wind effects can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants. It can also explain why the wind becomes an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.

Blue colors indicate that the wind speed is reduced, and red colors indicate that the wind speed is increased. The color mapping is linear and relative to this specific simulation.
Top View (Z)8 wind directions
You can use these images to find different wind effects. These images show the wind flow in different locations, as an average. Wind effects can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants. It can also explain why the wind becomes an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.

Blue colors indicate that the wind speed is reduced, and red colors indicate that the wind speed is increased. The color mapping is linear and relative to this specific simulation.
Wind effectsStreamlines
The images in this section shows velocity streamlines for each wind direction in different slices viewed from the top. Streamlines indicate directions, followed by a wind particle of the flow. For the top view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction.
Top View (Z)8 wind directions
The images in this section shows velocity streamlines for each wind direction in different slices viewed from the top. Streamlines indicate directions, followed by a wind particle of the flow. For the top view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction.
  • How to interpret the color scale
    Colors
    Blue colors indicate that the wind speed is reduced, and red colors indicate that the wind speed is increased. The resulting wind speeds are compared to the input wind speed given in the set up.

    The flow is illustrated using two main colors, that are mapped to negative and positive values. Two main colors is typically used when a single channel of data is available (for example velocity, pressure or temperature). The color mapping is linear and relative to this specific simulation.
Wind effectsAverage
This section shows the wind flow (velocity). Each image is based on the average wind speed, and is visualized in slices. For the side view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction.

You can use this view to find different wind effects. Wind effects can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
Side View (Y)8 wind directions
This section shows the wind flow (velocity). Each image is based on the average wind speed, and is visualized in slices. For the side view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction.

You can use this view to find different wind effects. Wind effects can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
Wind effectsArrows
This section shows the wind flow (velocity). Each image is based on the average wind speed, and is visualized in slices. Each visualization is also overlapped with arrows, that indicate the wind direction and its dynamics. For the side view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction.

You can use this view to find different wind effects. Wind effects can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
Side View (Y)8 wind directions
This section shows the wind flow (velocity). Each image is based on the average wind speed, and is visualized in slices. Each visualization is also overlapped with arrows, that indicate the wind direction and its dynamics. For the side view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction.

You can use this view to find different wind effects. Wind effects can be used to initiate passive cooling, or to disperse pollutants, but can be also be an uncomfortable factor for pedestrians.
Wind effectsStreamlines
The images in this section shows velocity streamlines for each wind direction in different slices viewed from the side. Streamlines indicate directions, followed by a wind particle of the flow. For the side view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction.
Side View (Y)8 wind directions
The images in this section shows velocity streamlines for each wind direction in different slices viewed from the side. Streamlines indicate directions, followed by a wind particle of the flow. For the side view, the camera is placed orthogonally (90°) to the wind direction.
Computational Mesh
The images in this section show the tetrahedral mesh in cross sections perpendicular to the axis. Each vertex in the mesh can be thought of as a sampling point, where the flow is evaluated. Our adaptive mesh refinement method is capable of identifying regions of the flow requiring higher resolution, depending on the quantity of interest specified in the creation of the simulation, and the residual (the sum of all local errors). Tetrahedra in these regions are subdivided into smaller tetrahedra, increasing the resolution and decreasing the local error. This subdivision continues until the error is sufficiently small throughout the entire domain.

This figure shows the sequence of adaptive mesh refinements from the top (Z).
Top view
The images in this section show the tetrahedral mesh in cross sections perpendicular to the axis. Each vertex in the mesh can be thought of as a sampling point, where the flow is evaluated. Our adaptive mesh refinement method is capable of identifying regions of the flow requiring higher resolution, depending on the quantity of interest specified in the creation of the simulation, and the residual (the sum of all local errors). Tetrahedra in these regions are subdivided into smaller tetrahedra, increasing the resolution and decreasing the local error. This subdivision continues until the error is sufficiently small throughout the entire domain.

This figure shows the sequence of adaptive mesh refinements from the top (Z).
Raw dataAverage
Download average raw data (VTU) for the simulation. You can use open source software like ParaView to open and customize the visualization.

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